Fine Arts

Western Arts History

Performing Arts


Language Arts


AP English


Papers written back in undergraduate studies

Economics (2001-2002)

  • Analysis and forecast on Microsoft's entry into the game industry oligopoly
  • Corporate analysis on promotion scheme

Rhetoric (2001-2002)

  • Quiting smoking: process analysis
  • Dorms or Apartments?: comparison/contrast
  • Use of online assignments and quizzes: cause and effect
  • Sexual assault: understanding men
  • Homosexuals' impact on society
  • Racism towards immigrants
  • Second language acquisition

Enlightenment Period in Western Civilization (Spring 2005)

  • Enlightenment Ideals in society and politics
  • Negative Aspects of the Enlightenment elicited consquences

10,000 BC transition from hunting to farming in Middle East
Early civilizations - Nile, Tigris & Euphrates, Indus, the Yellow river - regular flood --> silt deposit --> enriched soil/irrigation

Evolution of writing
writings evolved into a more symbolic record of thoughts & actions as cultures grow more complex
pictorial depiction, later simplified to more abstract form --> laws written down, Hammurabi's prescribed code assured citizens from crime
thousands of characters placed entry barrier to elite society in Babylon and China until later centuries
500 BC emergence of phonetic alphabets in Mediterranean lead to spread of literacy: Phonetic(Phoenix) --> Greek --> Latin

Classicism - reverence for Greek & Roman culture in literature, art, architecture, marked by dedication to reason, restraint, elegance, harmony, clarity
15C Renaissance - re-discovery of classics after Middle Ages, started in Italy;
literature - Livy, Ovid, Horace, Senca, Pliny, Cicero, Virgil
architecture - harmony, balance, glorification of the human form inspired sculptures of Michelangelo, paintings of Raphael, led by Leon Battista Alberti
education - Byzantine Greeks left Constantinople bringing knowledge of Greek texts, Florentine banker Cosimo de'Medici founded a Platonic academy
17C France - poets François de Malherbe, Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, JEan de La Fontaine, dramatists Pierre Corneille, Jean Racine
music in Germany - complex polyphony of baroque & rococo styles(Bach, Handel) --> simplicity, balance, restraint, melodic line over supporting harmony with a wider range of dynamics(Mozart, Haydn, Gluck, Beethoven), introduction of piano, symphony orchestra, standardized sonata form
18C Romanticism - ideals of passion, imagination, freedom, rebellion rather than restraint & moderation
"I think that a knowledge of Greek thought and life, and of the arts in which the Greeks expressed their thought and sentiment, is essential to high culture. A man may know everything else, but without this knowledge he remains ignorant of the best intellectual and moral achievements of his own race." - Charles Eliot Norton(1885)

The Silk Road - trading route between Han China & Europe, founded by Han Wu Ti when he sent envoy Zhang Chien, busiest between 200BC & AD200
China exported spices, silk(secret manufacturing kept til 6C); pepper, pearls, sesame oil, textiles, coral, ivory from India; horses, jade from central Asia, wools, gold, gems, glassware, olive oil, wine from Mediterranea
Buddhism(India->China), Hinduism, Christianity travelled over routes, smallpox to Rome(AD165), Black Plague China-->Europe(1300s)
revived during pax mongolica(14C) - rise of Venetian traders incl. Marco Polo, Franciscan monks to spread Christianity
recent discovery of oil & gas in Mongolia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan may open up the new trade route

European germs caused diseases in native American civilization - low population density, less close contact with domesticated animal
hypothesis - measles/smallpox/tuberculosis from cattle, flu/pertussis from pigs, ducks, dogs, bubonic plagues from rodents, AIDS from monkeys
smallpox - infected Egypt(1150 BC), Mesopotamia->Roman empire(AD 165), China(250), Western Europe via returning crusaders(1300s), Edward Jenner discovered a vaccine in England(18C)
bubonic plague - China(1300s), the Black Death(1347-51) killing 24M in Europe, London's Great Plague(1665)
the New World - 8M native Americans died within 40 years of Columbus's arrival, population decline 20M->1.6M
modern medicine for smallpox(1979), 1918 influenza spread worldwide, AIDS from monkeys(1950s)

Minoans imprinting syllables into clay in Crete(1700 BC), Pi Sheng invented movable type into iron plate(1040s), Korean typographer casting types in bronze(1400s)
Johannes Gutenberg started mass production of printed bible(1450), printing machine
spread of printing - speed up idea spread, literacy increase, books became sacred objects

Slavery - Slavs in Europe, Greeks turned slaveholders-->Roman slaves, slavery between Christians & Muslims
as Native Americans died of plague, Portugal imported slaves from West Africa to mitigate labour shortage(16C)
trade - coffee & sugar plantations in Caribbean(notably Jamaica) & Brazi, tobacco & agricultural products from New England
Dutch domination(mid-17C), replaced by France & Britain(18C) - 10M slave transportation
abolition in British colonies(1807) leading to 1833 Abolition of Slavery Act, US Congress banned slave importation(1808)-->1865 Emancipation Proclamation

inspiration from ancient ideals of democracy - Greek statesman Demosthenes, Cicero, John Locke
Thomas Jefferson - rulers derive their just powers from the consent of the governed
European democratic models - voting rights to all male citizens in Athens assembly, Roman republicanism to plebeians but contended with aristocracy
American government based on Roman & British model - Senate chosen by state legislatures(6 yr. term) & House of Representative(2 yrs.), legislative body
France - Third Estate(commoners) leading assembly resurrection, 'All men are born free and equal in rights(Rousseau)' --> helped foster Napoleon dictatorship
perils of independence - democratic reformer to instable dictator - Antonio López de Santa Anna(Mexico), Simón Bolívar(Venezuela), Civil War(1861)

postal service in England(1840), first government sponsored stamps in US(1847), Pony Express(1860) --> transcontinental telegraph lines, canal-building(early 19C)
steam power - steam engine by James Watt(1769), 1st locomotive by Trevithick(1804), 60mi. railroad track in England(1830), bicycles(1880s), internal combustion engine to create mechanical power by fuel explosion driving down the cylinder(1805), automobile by Gottlieb Daimler(1885), Rudolf Diesel(1892)
communication - telegraph(1830s), Samuel Morse(1844), Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone(1876), transatlantic radio signals(1901)

World order
rivalries between imperial powers lead to WWI, failure of League of Nations leading to birth of United Nations after WWII
UN - American participation, chartered with powers to deploy its own troops as peacekeepers, authorise use of force by member nations against aggressors
Korean war - failure due to People's Republic of China denouncing US intervention
China becoming permanent member of Security Council(1971) and collapse of Soviet Union strengthened cooperation
First Gulf War failure to materialize for American plan to invade Iraq(2003)

Global Conflict 1900-1945

Toward a New Millenium 1945-Present
Marshall Plan/NATO($13B injection, Franklin D Roosevelt) vs. Iron Curtain/Warsaw Pact(Stalin)

Human Evolution
4.4M BC first hominids in East Africa, geographical climate changes, reducing forest habitat, lead to advantages in standing upright, looking out far, walking long distances.
2.5M BC Homo habilis(handy man) - craft tools, learn to shape environment, hospitality, hunt
1.8M BC Homo erectus(erect man) - mobility increase, spread out of Africa, build housing, Ice Age begins
0.1M BC Homo sapiens(wise man) - larger brain, use of fire
30K BC Neandertals disappear, presumably due to lack of speech development, social skills, peak of Ice Age, forming land bridges across continents
10K BC transition from hunting to farming, settlement(Neolithic) began around Fertile Crescent(Egypt to Syrian Desert), Jericho, Çatal Hüyük(Turkey)

Mesopotamian Civilization (3500-500 BC) - Euphrates & Tigris
Mesopotamia - between Euphrates & Tigris rivers near Persian Gulf, convergence to form a floodplain of exceptional fertility
Sumerian society - construction & maintenance of irrigation system --> need for strong leadership & mega-scale labour force
surplus storage --> trade & distribution, pictographs to record transactions, drawn by a stylus
Ziggurats - Sumerian temple for storage/trade of food surpluses, supervision of temple staffs: cooks, weavers, musicians
Lugal/Ensi - chief appointed by council of wealthy elders -> laws written to offer assurance on rights & property
city states expanding in competition --> warfare --> slavery of foreigners
many specialized occupations emerged to fill the needs of kings, priests, citizens - scribes, merchants, coppersmiths, bakers, brewers of barley ale
conquerors - Sargon from Akkad, Hammurapi from Babylon (complie laws into code of Hammurapi), Hitties with two-wheeled chariots(1595 BC)
Iron Age - harder weapons, plentiful resource compare to bronze(alloy of copper & tim) --> rise to kingdoms of Hebrews(wanders), Assyrians(900-600 BC)
Rebirth of Babylon (612-6C BC) - lunar eclipse prediction, mathematics computation based on 60 second/minute/degree circle, conquered by Persians
Judaism - Abraham leaves Ur to Canaan to found a new country, Moses frees from enslavement in Egypt, kingdom split: northern Israel conquered by Assyrians(721 BC), southern Judea fall to Babylonians. "Let not the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man glory in his riches" - Jeremiah

Egyptian Civilization (3000-500 BC) - The Nile
papyrus - a reed that grew in marshy areas, first used to build rafts, later to make paper
The Nile served as an artery of communication between villages
Old Kingdom, unification under Narmer(3000 BC); after collapse of new kingdom(1070 BC)
pharaohs(great house) - commanded obedience by religion & hierographs
Egyptian gods - falcon god Horus, sun god Re, cat Bastet, crocodile Sobek, vulture Nekhbet, cobra Wadjyt, Thebes Amun
3rd dynasty began building pyramids(2700 BC), smooth sided pyramid at Giza by Khufu(2550 BC), mummification, reflect obsession with afterlife
sphinx guarding pyramids complex bearing the face of Khufu's son Khafre
Mentuhotep II from Thebes conquer, re-uniting to Middle kingdom - weakened governors power, expanding cultivation, oasis Faiyum-->breadbasket
New Kingdom formed by Ahmose from the new capital Thebes(Luxor) by driving Hyksos out of lower Egypt(1550 BC), supported by gold mines in Nubia
Thutmose III crushed Canaanites(1483 BC), Ramses made peace with Hittites, afterwards imperial expansion to Syria & Libya
post-1000BC conquered by Libyans, Nubians, Persians, Macedonians under Alexander the Great, Romans under Augustus Caesar

Indian Civilization (2500-500 BC) - The Indus river valley

Chinese Civilization (2200-500 BC) - Yellow river

Mediterranean (2000-500 BC)

Mesoamerica (1200-400 BC)

1945 - Present
postwar settlement & cold war - Yalta conference with Churchill(1945), FDR, Stalin, Marshall plan(1948), NATO(1949), Korean War(1950), Warsaw pact(1955), Berlin wall(1961), Cuban missile threat(1962), Vietnam war(1961-1975), Iran revolution, Soviet invasion in Afghanistan(1979), Gorbachev in power(1985), Berlin wall falls(1989), Soviet union disbands(1991)
Arab-Israeli conflicts - separation of Palestine(1947), Israel fights off Arab neighbors in 1948-49 war, Six-day war to present day border line(1967)
Third World development - British/French decolonization, Gandhi-India/Pakistan(1947), Charles de Gaulle-Algeria(1962), Hong Kong return(1997)
science - ENIAC(1946), Bell labs transistor(1947), Big bang theory(1948), Watson DNA(1953), 1st artificial satellite Sputnik(1957), laser(1960), Apollo 11 on moon(1969), smallpox eradication(1979), human genome project completes human DNA decoding(2001)
Globalization - General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade(1947), European union(1993), Uruguay round(1994), World Trade Organization establishment(1995), Euro currency circulation(2002)

Commentaries on Post-colonial period English Literature (Spring 2005)

  • Familiar tradition in Nervous Conditions
  • Use of Stereotypes in Heart of Darkness
  • National identity in Exile according to Julia
  • Familiar tradition in Nervous Conditions
  • Key Moments in Metamorphosis of Jasmine

Reading list 2013

Libre Author Notables
Business Analysis Debra Paul notes recorded in Business Analysis section
The 4-Hour Chef Timothy Ferriss
The Great Gatsby F.S. Fitzgerald
Management 3.0 Jurgen Appelo

Kanban David Anderson   
UML for ITBAHoward Pdeswa  
World HistoryNational Geographic  

Reading list 2012

Libre Author Notables
Stage manners don't remember

The 4-Hour Workweek Timothy Ferriss
  • 'The rules of reality can be bent. It just requires thinking in different terms.'

Steve Jobs Walter Isaacson
Managing yourself HBR
  • The most powerful motivator isn’t money. it’s the opportunity to learn, grow in responsibilities, contribute, and be recognized - Frederick Herzberg

Reading list 2011

Libre Author Notables
The GameNeil Strauss All human problems fall into one of three areas: health, wealth, and relationships, each of which has an inner and an outer component. “There is no such thing as cheap sex. It always comes with a price. Leave her better than you found her.” -Ross Jeffries
The EMyth revisited Michael E. Gerber
  • Tolerance for failure is a very specific part of the excellent company culture-and that lesson comes directly from the top. Champions have to make lots of tries and consequently suffer some failures or the organization won't learn.
  • All organizations are hierarchical. At each level people serve under those above them. An organization is therefore a structured institution. If it is not structured, it is a mob. Mobs do not get things done, they destroy things.
  • The System is the Solution
The Prince Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Entrepreneurs are simply those who understand that there is little difference between obstacle and opportunity and are able to turn both to their advantage.
  • She favours young men because they are less circumspect and more ardent, and because they command her with greater audacity.
  • A son can bear with equanimity the loss of his father, but the loss of his inheritance may drive him to despair.
  • It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot be both.
  • It is not titles that honor men, but men that honor titles.
  • Men rise from one ambition to another: first, they seek to secure themselves against attack, and then they attack others.
  • The first method for estimating the intelligence of a ruler is to look at the men he has around him.
  • The wise man does at once what the fool does finally.
  • There is no avoiding war; it can only be postponed to the advantage of others.
  • It is far better to earn the confidence of the people than to rely on fortresses.
  • There are three kinds of intelligence: one kind understands things for itself, the other appreciates what others can understand, the third understands neither for itself nor through others. This first kind is excellent, the second good, and the third kind useless.
  • A wise man ought always to follow the paths beaten by great men, and to imitate those who have been supreme, so that if his ability does not equal theirs, at least it will savour it.
  • For injuries ought to be done all at one time, so that, being tasted less, they offend less; benefits ought to be given little by little, so that the flavour of them may last longer.
Social Contract Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • We always want what is advantageous to us but we do not always discern it. The people is never corrupted, but it is often misled; and only then does it seem to will what is bad.

Reading list 2010

Libre Author Memorable quotes
Winner stands alone Paulo Coelho
  • How can we be so arrogant? The planet is, was, and always will be stronger than us. We can't destroy it; if we overstep the mark, the planet will simply erase us from its surface and carry on existing. Why don't they start talking about not letting the planet destroy us?
  • Vanity of vanities, all is vanity, and there is nothing new under the sun, as Solomon said more than three thousand years ago.
  • To think is to make mistakes.
  • Even if you’re doing the same thing over and over, you need to discover something new, fantastic, and unbelievable that went unnoticed the time before.
  • They think they’re at the peak of their careers and the inevitable descent frightens them. They’ve forgotten that there’s still a whole world to conquer.
Catcher in the Rye J.D. Salinger
  • All morons hate it when you call them a moron.
  • Among other things, you'll find that you're not the first person who was ever confused and frightened and even sickened by human behavior. You're by no means alone on that score, you'll be excited and stimulated to know. Many, many men have been just as troubled morally and spiritually as you are right now. Happily, some of them kept records of their troubles. You'll learn from them - if you want to. Just as someday, if you have something to offer, someone will learn something from you. It's a beautiful reciprocal arrangement. And it isn't education. It's history. It's poetry.
  • I thought what I'd do was, I'd pretend I was one of those deaf-mutes. That way I wouldn't have to have any goddam stupid useless conversations with anybody.
  • The mark of the immature man is that he wants to die nobly for a cause, while the mark of the mature man is that he wants to live humbly for one.
Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • I hope she’ll be a fool—that’s the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool.
  • They were careless people, Tom and Daisy smashed up things then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness, or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made.
Candide Voltaire
  • If this is the best of all possible worlds, what are the others?
  • Certainly a man should travel.
  • If we cannot succeed in this world we may in another. It is a great pleasure to see new objects and perform new exploits.
  • Troubles are just the shadows in a beautiful picture.
  • We must [simply] cultivate our garden.